2nd February 2017. Seems to be a lot of hoo ha and misreporting about the US – Russion Relationship under the new US administration. People have very short memories. If not for the Russian sacrifices against the Nazis, outnumbering the total killed and wounded of all others by a factor of 10 the whole of Europe would have undoubtedly fallen to Hitler and we would have had a very different world.
1st November 2016. How many times doing business do you come up with the logjam…’We cant tell you that because of privacy regulations’. This grit in the wheels of progress leglislation is from the same governments who have stripped every semblance of privacy from individuals.
12th October 2016. You only have to look at current shenanigans in US, UK and Australian politics to know how broken are these so called democratic systems which only represent the few. The disappointing fact is that there are other much more equitable, workable systems of government in the world which work well. Wresting the levers of power from those who benefit most to initiate change – now that’s the problem.
‘Too bad that all the people who know how to run the country are busy driving taxicabs and cutting hair’
21st August 2016. Having spent good money watching Marion Jones win numerous events at the 2000 Olympics to find some years later that she had more drugs in her bloodstream than the average pharmacist shop I understandably have a very jaundiced view of the whole procedure. As a device for making some people very rich and some cities very poor it works well otherwise I see no redeeming features.
“We must have had 99 percent of the match, it was the other three percent that cost us.”
3rd July 2016. One just has to sit through an election night count to realise that we are way over governed. One hundred and seventy or so federally and their army of hangers-on justifying their existence in the delusion they are representing their constituents when in fact all they are doing is toeing a party line.
‘The circus has come to town, but there are way too many clowns’
2nd July 2016. The Australian census is in August. I have been given an expensive little booklet on how to distribute and collect census data on possible guests. Two pages of this expensive booklet are devoted to motherhood statements on Workplace Health and Safety, like ‘Prevent work related injury and disease’ – For heavens sake I am giving out and collecting forms – absolutely beyond stupidity.
‘Smile and act stupid, that way no one gets confused’
2nd April 2016. Ever tried to get a small business off the ground in Australia. Every step of the way bureaucracy, legality, and banking is there trying to stop you. The parasites are out in force trying to suck every dollar out of the venture by the imposition of obscure, unnecessary, and ridiculous imposts and costs generated by a host of unnecessary drones.
‘I looked for an inspirational quote, but then I lost the inspiration’
18th March 2016. Well we are in the middle of a filibuster. The only time politicians will work late – to save their seats. Here in Australia we are girding our loins for an election, ready to be treated like children as politicians launch their own brand of obfuscation, distortion, exaggeration, evasion and I daresay ..lies.
In a double whammy our news media insist on pushing the daily circus of US politics on us as well. My only observation on the US election situation is that Donald Trump can’t be controlled by the vested interests, so he must be destroyed as well funded attacks against him increase daily.
‘In order to become the master, the politician poses as the servant.’
3rd March 2016. With news that a Local Government employee lifted 4 million out of Council coffers over years with the usual fake invoice scam, and every day there is a seeming barrage of scammers, hackers, blowers, romance artists and other devious types preying on the vulnerable. It is indeed a sick society we live in. Valour, honour, sportsmanship and sacrifice – I read about them in books once.
18th February 2016. While governments around the world sit on their hands our oceans fill with plastic waste. The fish you eat probably contains more plastic than you care to think about. Meanwhile our packaging, and consumer product industries continue to go their own way and to hell with everyone else.
‘Make your message in a bottle read – don’t litter’
10th February 2016. Ever dream of a place where everything is on time, everything works, people are polite,courteous and honest. Such a society exists – Japan. No it’s not perfect just a damn sight more perfect than any other society you care to visit.
9th February 2016. Slowly divorcing myself from the news sources, both printed and visual; sources immersed in never ending politics – discussing deeply flawed individuals, who are usually introducing deeply flawed policies.
In most cases the attempt for printed media to move to digital in this country has resulted in click-bait populous rubbish. On the positive side independent web journalism shows a promising glimmer of hope.
I must say ‘The New Yorker’ remains a beacon of light in well researched and well written articles as does ‘The Financial Times’, ‘Economist’ and a few other overseas periodicals – all originating outside Australia. Local papers are little better than comic books. Just a rant
‘People are sheep – the news media is the shepherd’
11th September 2015. We went soft on discipline, parents and teachers were prevented from chatising children by a minority legal / bureaucracy. We reap what we sow. We have lost a generation who have turned into rebellious, disrespectful, self centered ratbags. In my opinion the spate of crimes against women and other crimes of violence being committed by this generation are committed by people who have never heard the word ‘No’.
‘Good citizenship demands attention to responsibilities as well as rights.’
22nd August 2015. Looking around a small publicly accessible pool near a restaurant I counted 9 signs around the pool, all exhorting the dim-witted and foolish not to do dim-witted and foolish actions. Why do we have to lower society to the lowest common denominator.
‘What this country needs are more unemployed politicians.’
16th August 2015. After spending millions of dollars big-noting themselves in a Senate Enquiry, the committee in charge is recommending that the Multi-National Corporations who are serial tax avoiders be named and shamed. Is that the best they can do ?
‘I don’t make jokes. I just watch the government and report the facts.’
12th August 2015. ‘Australia’s mandatory helmet laws for cyclists should be abolished because they are deterring people from riding bikes and improving their health, a number of doctors and academics have told MPs.’ Are these the same doctors and academics that told us we should have them in the first place?
If you don’t read the newspaper you are uninformed, if you do read the newspaper you are misinformed.
5th August 2015. Free trade agreements should not be about corporate interests supplanting public ones but, with the secrecy surrounding the Trade in Services Agreement talks this may be what Australia’s future holds. Germany is presently being sued, under the investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) provisions, for $US4.7 billion because it wants to phase out nuclear power. Canada lost a case after Quebec imposed a moratorium on fracking. The federal government was sued over its tobacco legislation, and though it won the 2012 case, the latest one asking billions in compensation has not been decided.
Our essential sovereignty in being able to regulate business in our own country.
3rd August 2015. The big pharmaceutical companies in Australia made $8 billion sales last year, received $3.5 billion in government subsidies and paid $85 million tax – Oh and of course they were very generous political donors.
24th July 2015. While we all lose sleep over life’s petty problems, no one seems particularly perturbed that due to man’s intervention in the atmosphere the earth has now entered an unstoppable warming phase, a phase, that even with maximum intervention will go on for a millenium. Not my problem, I’ll be dead by then seems to be the mindset…… We always were a flawed species.
Geoffrey Lincoln, whilst restoring a vintage Ryan aircraft, discovers a letter hidden within the wing. The faded letter, a message passed across generations and continents, hints at the existence of an enigma. So starts a desperate hunt which leads to the edge of the Arctic Circle. An adult story of surprises, tragedy, and comradeship.
22nd July 2015. Well back after a long sabbatical while getting a bit disillusioned with the state of the nation. Currently in my view we have the worst Prime Minister we have ever had, the current government is the worst we have ever had, and the current opposition is the most ineffectual we have ever had. The country is in a race to the bottom and like leemings many of the population are following. The rich are getting richer, the poor are getting poorer, corporations are dodging billions in tax and the country is existing as a service industry selling over priced overseas goods and services to other Australians.
Sitting back and saying nothing – achieves nothing
9th November 2014. I can remember when there were only two speed limits in Australia 30 mph and derestricted. Now we have a whole army of bureaucrats and an expensive industry manufacturing poles and signs which seem to change daily.
‘ Bureaucracy, the art of making the possible impossible’
7th November 2014. So we have 6 live Prime Ministers in this country all sucking on the public purse to the extent of a half a million salary p.a with obscene benefits and superannuation. Not one of them has statesman like qualities to say ‘enough is enough’.
‘If voting changed anything they would make it illegal’
29th September 2014. So it seems almost 8 billion dollars in tax are being avoided by companies doing business in Australia. Surely time the tax authorities and the government got off their respective backsides and stopped these accountancy rorts .
‘Lets have a tax system that looks as if it was designed on purpose’
23rd September 2014. Much of the daily bad news can be eventually be traced back to one issue ‘Too many people’. Many species in the animal and insect world are biologically way ahead of us in controlling population to meet the requirements of the environment eg Kangaroos hold back birth rates in bad times. Humans well I guess we will just procreate ourselves into oblivion.
‘Each person we add now disproportionately impacts on the environment and life-support systems of the planet‘
9th July 2014. Retirees after being ravaged by the unscrupulous in the financial services industry eventually when they move to a retirement facility, are then in the sights of the brigands in the retirement care industry . In many cases unconscionable contracts, deferred fees, outlandish maintenance fees and deposits make this industry a thieves paradise.
‘Retirement kills more people than hard work ever did’
21st Jun 2014. A recent study has indicated that 25% of trades in the stock market are the result of insider trading. If this is true the Stock Market is one of the biggest swindles in town. Surprised – No.
1st June 2014. The obesity epidemic is out of control, costing countries billions of dollars. As a libertarian, nevertheless, I acknowledge the time has come for governments to reign in a food industry that appears to be succeeding in killing us for profit.
‘Chemicals, n: Noxious substances from which modern foods are made‘
31st May 2014. It probably comes as no surprise that the major political parties have been rorting the election funding laws, many instances past the point of criminality. The grip on power is totally related to money and some have the hide to call it democracy.
‘Can Australians get back to a point where politicians are honest? Not unless that point is the tip of a sword’
The bunch of Biggles supposedly running this country are living in a bygone era at our expense. In a time of budget crisis when expenditure is being cut in all areas they have committed us to purchase 60 fighter aircraft at a cost so far of over $20 billion. To my recollection ‘the winners’ of the last two significant wars, The North Vietnamese and the Taliban had almost nothing in the way of navy or air forces. One thing they did have were leaders that knew what they were doing, so I guess that puts us at an even greater disadvantage.
14th April 2014. A long study by renowned French economist Thomas Piketty, revealed in his book ‘Capital in the 21st Century’, indicates a growing disparity in world wealth. This disparity sees the obscenity of the top 1% of people owning 35% of world wealth and is primarily due to the exorbitant salaries and options leading business people either award themselves or have their cohorts award them. He further states that there is no valid economic reason to justify this remuneration.
9th April 2014. So once again we have an expensive enquiry into aspects of the cesspool of Australian politics. Once again no doubt the corrupt will be thrashed with a feather. Everyone is getting tired of the leniency afforded to corrupt politicians and white collar criminals. If we are going to have ‘The Rule of Law’ the penalties must be a deterrent to these cretins and those following them.
‘A jury consists of twelve persons chosen to decide who has the better lawyer. ‘
20th March 2014. Lobbying and corruption are so close together they are almost indistinguishable. Lobbying must be stopped if any semblance of our democracy is to remain before being shredded by the influence seekers.
‘You can lead a person to politics – but you can’t make them think’
12th March 2014. Australian Governments are starting a trend to stop paying solar electricity owners for their excess power. I don’t think they realize the tsunami of people that will leave the grid when fast approaching new solar technologies arrive. So much for their expensive power station and grid cash cows.
1st March 2014. I am reluctant to keep rabbiting on about this but… We still get bombarded by stories of grubby little people playing their childish I spy games in the name of National Security. Many of their activities way beyond the bounds of legality and the mores of a civilized society.
1st March 2014. Have been a bit of a lazy correspondent lately. Having finished two novels ‘Contrail’ and ‘The Fox Hunter’ , ( both Thriller/Romance if you like that genre) ,they can be downloaded on Amazon. I have started a third in the trilogy which should be released end of 2014. This activity nevertheless is an outlet that stops me throwing things at the TV as each news edition brings more stories of man’s inhumanity to man. I seem to have entered a society where everyone seems to be trying to crawl up the back of someone else and there is a paucity of good news stories.
‘The role of a writer is not to say what we all can say, but what we are unable to say.’
1st January 2014. I think not. I fail to find a glimmer of light for the forthcoming year. Religious wars continue unabated, Governments spy on their own populations, overpopulation reduces the lifestyle of everyone, nature is under assault by the greedy and the ignorant, the political classes in the main are rife with corruption. Only one small glimmer – it will be all self correcting.
‘Youth is when you’re allowed to stay up late on New Year’s Eve. Middle age is when you’re forced to’
28th November 2013. So our new Government has been in action a couple of month. To date they have managed to enrage our nearest large Neighbour, Indonesia, infuriate the largest regional neighbour China, obstruct international climate negotiations,repeal the carbon tax in the lower house.
Don’t blame me, I’m in the over 50% that didn’t vote for the turkeys.
6th September 2013. On the eve of our Federal Election (tomorrow). I could have written volumes about lies,deceit,distortion,exaggeration,omission and obfuscation. The process however leaves me with only one word – disgust.
30th August 2013. Any time we get a picture perfect calm day some paranoid gits will decide to burn off bush, destroying habitat,flora and fauna ‘as a precaution’. How about as a precaution we force anybody that wants to build in a bushfire area to take appropriate precautions rather than destroy the natural environment.
13th July 2013. Every day a new revelation in the privacy debate. So it seems that for years Telstra, our major carrier, has been making available our private communications to at least one foreign power. Did our gutless governments tell us ? – NO. And to cap off the week, news that a state government is legislating to record all private conversations in cabs. Hundreds of thousands of Australians that fought for a free society would be rolling in their graves.
‘“Corporations and governments cannot commit treason for they have no souls’
10th July 2013. So the Queensland politicians tried to vote themselves a 40% pay rise until somebody pinged. Also the report that a senior federal politician has booked himself and his wife in for cooking courses on a tax payer funded European tour reinforces what a crass lot of individuals bullshit their way into politics.
Time for representative democracy to be replaced by direct democracy.
22nd June 2013. Privacy issues just will not go away. So it now seems a cabal of paranoid nations are tapping into fibre optic nodes to vacuum the majority of world wide communication traffic. Is there no end to this travesty.
12th June 2013. In view of the US government and a number of major corporations playing free and loose with everyone private information either for their own paranoia or greed, I am starting to divest myself of services seen to be associated with these policies – goodbye you bunch of pricks
7th June 2013. In a fit of enthusiasm, and on the assumption that governments should even wipe our nose, some bureaucratic dill mandated that domestic hot water heaters maximum temperature be turned down so people would not scald themselves. They are now finding after spending millions employing plumbers to turn down the heat that they have adjusted hot water heaters to the range that encourages the deadly legionella bacteria.
26th may 2013. There is increasing evidence that most international companies are tax avoiders. Using the wealth generated by avoiding tax to contrive ever more devious schemes to continue to do so. Enough is enough…
‘Taxation with representation ain’t so hot either’
12th May 2013. I see the other day the painting of a pedestrian crossing cost $100,000. Just another example of scandalous waste of public monies by the public service bureaucracies with their general lack of accountability and cozy little tendering practices.
‘I spend nearly everything on wine, women and song, the rest I waste’
31st March 2013. Recent reports indicate 70% of police time is spent on alchohol related incidents to say nothing of the social cost to families. Unambiguous statistics, and still the politicians sit on their hands and do nothing to impose sensible restrictions on the excesses of this industry.
15th March 2013. So, the Australian Privacy Act, which enshrines an individuals ability to access information held about him/her, does not apply to politicians or political parties. They can hold information about an individual that cannot be legally accessed.
6th March 2013. So the Swiss are enshrining in legislation limits on executive pay and directors ‘Golden Parachutes’, but then again they have a governmental system that is democratic not like the joke that is the Westminster System
‘My rank is the highest known in Switzerland, I’m a free citizen
27th February 2013. I suggest our NSW bureaucrats and politicians take a trip on the Japanese bullet train and a walk through Tokyo Shinjuku train station which handles numbers equal to the entire population of Sydney in one day, to see how successive NSW State Governments have overseen a massive failure in public transport in Sydney.
‘The only way to catch a train is to miss the one before it’
3rd February 2013. The corrupt: In China they shoot them, In the US they throw them in gaol for 25 years ( if they dont give them a bank bailout ), in Australia they have a 3 year court case, transfer millions to lawyers, and let them off on a technicality.
‘Dont lie and cheat – the government doesn’t like competition’
1st February 2013. This country has become ridiculously dense with laws to the extent that legal self- consciousness is stiffling the exercise of judgement. Today rights are increasingly offensive weapons wielded to inflict demands on other people, using state power for private and corporate aggrandisement .The law is being frequently used to stifle free speech, particular by those whose actions need to be bathed in the light of public scrutiny.
‘The warning on a three pronged fishing hook says : ‘Harmful if swallowed’
28th January 2013. As our current Government tries to further restrict free speech ,an opportune time to reprint an article on how our freedoms are being diminished in a similar way to cold war USSR, and how political correctness drives discussion underground
25th January 2013.Recent articles have outlined the rort that is the family trust tax system. Not for butchers, bakers, and candlestick makers. The well heeled and their tame lawyers and accountants have been driving a horse and cart through the tax system for years. Never mind the country is in good hands, the wages and salaries earner will prop us up.
“There are 3 types of accountant – those that can count and those that can’t.”
18th January 2013. Incompetence of political processes, intransigence of religion,suffocating air pollution and getting worse,global warming and getting worse, population out of control,superbugs out of control,rich getting richer,poor getting poorer, making war not peace. Sorry to say it folks – we’re doomed because of our own collective stupidity. Sit back and enjoy the ride but it aint going to be pleasant.
9th January 2013. So our governments are continually squealing about lack of funds, how about a tax on gambling in the hands of the recipient.. A share trade (now that is gambling ) is charged Capital Gains Tax on the difference between funds paid and funds received. So what is so different about a horse race
In gambling the many must lose in order that the few may win.
8th January 2013. I see the Queensland Liberal Government is pushing non compulsory voting. Good try, when studies indicate this method massively favours right wing parties as traditional left voters, the poor, disabled and disadvantaged struggle to live, let alone make it to the polling booth.
“The best argument against democracy is a five-minute conversation with the average voter.”
5th January 2013.The power wielded by big oil, big pharma,big food, big finance etc in their rapacious search for profit and executive and owner remuneration is beyond the capacity of the individual to combat. Remember ‘justice’ belongs to those with money and these organizations have the money and in this litigious society woe betide individual action other than boycott.
I am not in favour of nannystates but governments must at times step forward and do what governments are designed to do – represent the best interests of the people as a whole, because they are the only ones that can.
‘ Under capitalism man exploits man; under socialism the reverse is true‘
16th December 2012. I sense the same feeling in people as I feel myself in the closing stages of this year. A matter of fundamental rights and principles. a backlash to the last 10 years of erosion of human rights in the name of the ‘war on terror’…. to the spending of kazillions on arms, while many starve to death or die of treatable disease….. to the corporatisation of sport and its sell out to big gambling, to the perversion and monopolisation of the traditional media….to the politicians ,corrupt and honest, with their self serving obscene pensions and benefits, to Big mining, the Big Pharmas, the corporate barons with their tame remuneration companies, arms traders and drug lords. a backlash to greed and corruption in all its forms and guises, disgust and disillusionment on a massive scale.
4th December 2012. So the news is getting worse with news that by 2100 max temps will rise by 4-6 C. Atmospheric pollution comes down the Hunter Valley in coal trains and is launched into the atmosphere courtesy of China who at this moment appear responsible for 80% of the pollution. Chinese per capita emissions of course are much lower than ours so the blame lies not with China but everyone.
We enrich magnates, please shareholders, but destroy the planet.
‘Our great grandchildren will say – how could you let this happen’
2nd December 2012. On the same page of the paper I see the Attourney General has raised the fine for Privacy breaches to $1m.The other article describes how organizations as diverse as the RSPCA and Local Councils, can, and have, accessed the confidential phone and email information of citizens to the extent of being totally out of control.
‘Privacy and Accountability, the former for yourself, the latter for others’
21st November 2012. Multinationals around the world are running for cover as governments belatedly discover that these companies have been driving a horse and cart between tax laws to avoid multi billions in taxes. Long overdue retribution appears to be on its way.
‘Taxation with representation ain’t so hot either‘
19th November 2012. It doesnt take a mental giant to see that the latest Middle East conflict between Israel and Palestine is a prelude to an Israel / Iran stoush as Israel frees up its borders. Expect an Israel / Lebanon imbroglio also on the agenda.
20th October 2012. Another request to sign a petition – total waste of time as there is no mandatory requirement for it to be acted on. In the Swiss system 50,000 petitioners can force a debate in parliament. Our politicians couldnt do that , they might have to answer to the people less than once every four years.
‘Those who are too smart to engage in politics are punished by being governed by those who are dumber.‘
15th October 2012. Seems to have been a rash of insurance plans aimed at the over 60’s lately. As usual reports are surfacing that advertising for these plans contain a wealth of distortions,omissions, and embellishments, but then again, aiming at the financially naive is not new in our society.
‘Advertising is the art of making whole lies out of half truths‘
12th October 2012. So a Melbourne Council has stopped kids playing Frisbee in a local park without paying for a $120 permit. Seems time to take a stand against those hiding behind the cloak of bureaucracy. Haven’t they seen the latest obesity statistics.
‘Bureaucracy, the rule of no one, has become the modern form of despotism’
9th October 2012. If respective governments spent as much on getting knowledge workers out of their cars and into home offices, as they spend on highways to the next traffic jam it would solve many societal and ecological problems.
‘An advanced society is where the rich take public transport’
7th October 2012. Whilst our mediocre politicians dither and spend most of their time hurling insults at each other our Nett Foreign Debt rises to alarming proportions. The effect of this is to allow other countries, by purchase, to get a significant stakeholding in our assets , particularly food producing and minerals. I cannot really see why such land cannot be leased rather than sold outright/
‘If it moves regulate it, if it stops moving subsidise it’
2nd October 2012.Since coming to power in 2007 our current government has introduced 10 pieces of legislation reducing the benefits of ordinary super contributors to the tune of $7.8 billion. No doubt some of these funds will go to supplementing Politicians and Public servants defined benefit schemes
‘Democracy is two wolves and a lamb voting on what to have for lunch’
23rd September 2012. Now there’s a word I haven’t used for awhile. The Telco’s of course in their obscure and misleading contracts have this down to a fine art. Not to be outdone the power companies are now doing the same tired old bait and switch tricks. Corporate morals , an oxymoron.
‘Corporations don’t have to lobby the government anymore. They are the government’
13th September 2012. Having recently observed voting activitity at a polling station for Local Government Elections it was obvious that the majority of voters did not have a clue regarding the preferences allocated by candidates and nowhere is it required to be published. Consequently a vote for one candidate could end up being given to an entirely different individual not aligned with the voters wishes – a dogs breakfast.
15th August 2012. There appears to be increasing evidence that some paranoid dills in government are considering the use of a system wide facial surveillance aggregator in our cities to spy on the population. The question will be asked in Parliament in the Senate today…
‘When it comes to privacy and accountability, people always demand the former for themselves and the latter for everyone else’
1st August 2012. So once again I see the circus has come to town with the usual suspects tagging along,the fat purveyors, the gambling companies, the drug and supplement companies etc. call it a circus if you like but please dont call it sport.
‘whoever said ‘Its playng the game that counts’ probably lost’
8th July 2012. A digger dies on his 7th deployment to Afghanistan in a wet dream war of suspect legality. Retired service personnel get shafted by a pension scheme not keeping pace with other pension schemes. Politicians, in the second pay rise in a year vote themselves an extra $44,000 per annum with only one dissension in the entire house. I repeat myself
20th June 2012. Queensland believes it has 20,000 more public servants than it needs. The view is reinforced that Australia’s economy now rides on a bloated and non productive ( in economic terms ) public service with most of the rest of the country selling either overpriced services or overpriced foreign goods to other Australians. Respective governments as CEO’s of business Australia should hang their head in shame at the death of our manufacturing, farming and other productive industries. Nearly 2 Trillion Net Foreign debt – you better believe it.
‘Economists are people who work with numbers but don’t have the personality to be accountants.’
18th June 2012. So it appears that in the last 5 years, the issue of psychotic prescription drugs to children has doubled. The movement to remove discipline from the home and schools undoubtedly one of the major causes. But then some would say I am out of touch.
‘Dont discipline your children, drug them – its the Australian way’
11th June 2012. With the four major banks in Australia having over 80% of the business, an effective monopoly held in place by regulation, I fail to see how the Reserve Bank and politicians can continue to talk about bank competition. This monopoly diminishes the assets and incomes of other Australians by charging an estimated seven times greater for their services than it is worth.
‘What is the robbing of a bank compared to the founding of a bank’
31st May 2012. The decision of the new president of France take a 30% pay cut and his statement that the highest paid in the workforce should be limited to a salary 20 times the lowest paid must be sending shock waves through the pigpens in other countries. Tame remuneration tribunals in this country are doing their best to create a financial schism in society.
‘Boardroom Salary, mostly a warm personal gesture to oneself’
25th May 2012. I see IBM have banned their employees from using I-Phone. Apparently the Siri voice recognition is not done on the phone but in the ‘Cloud’. The question of course is where is ‘The Cloud’, and more importantly who has access to it.
‘Privacy, a word that used to be in the English Language’